An international team of scientists have predicted a new superhard material that can be used in drilling, machine building and other fields. The new tungsten boride they discovered outperforms the widely used ‘pobedit’ ‒ a hard tungsten carbide and cobalt composite material with artificial diamond interspersing. The results of their study were published in the reputable scientific journal, The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.
Superhard substances have a broad scope of application spanning well drilling, machine building, metalworking, the defense industry, surgical uses and many other fields. The hardest known material, the diamond, is an unaffordable luxury in many applications. Its distant competitor, pobedit, has remained unrivaled for the last 80 years. Developed in the 1930s, it was used during the Second World War to make anti-tank shell caps (the word “pobedit” is actually derived from the Russian “pobeda” which means victory) and has been used for decades to manufacture drill bits for the drilling rigs. Harder materials either require higher-pressure synthesis or have much lower fracture toughness.
A team of scientists led by Professor Artem Oganov of Skoltech and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) used their USPEX evolutionary algorithm to predict a new material, WB5, that can be synthesized at normal pressure and can successfully compete with pobedit in the two most essential parameters ‒ hardness and fracture toughness ‒ which are 50% higher and 20% lower, respectively, for WB5 as compared to pobedit. The new material is a previously unknown compound that can be easily obtained under normal conditions. The Skoltech scientists performed their study within the framework of Gazprom Neft’s large-scale project aimed at creating new materials for drilling applications.
“Before we discovered the new material, we had studied a lot of systems on the computer, trying to predict stable chemical compounds and calculate their properties. These were quite interesting substances, although they could hardly compete with pobedit. At some point I thought we would never beat pobedit which has stood its ground for almost a century ‒ and for good reason. But suddenly we saw a glimmer of hope and soon found a unique compound, WB5,” says the study lead Artem Oganov.
“The tungsten-boron system has been the subject of a multitude of experimental and theoretical studies, and it is surprising that this compound has not been discovered till now,” said the study’s first author Dr. Alexander Kvashnin.
Authors who participated in the study included scientists from Skoltech and MIPT in Russia, Yerevan State University in Armenia, and the following three Chinese universities: the School of Physics of the China University of Mining and Technology, the International Center for Materials Discovery of the Northwestern Polytechnical University, and the School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering of the Guangdong University of Technology.
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The Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech) is a private graduate research university. Established in 2011 in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Skoltech cultivates a new generation of researchers and entrepreneurs, promotes advanced scientific knowledge and fosters innovative technology to address critical issues facing Russia and the world in the third millennium. Skoltech applies the best Russian and international research and educational practices, with particular emphasis on entrepreneurship and innovation. https://www.skoltech.ru/.
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